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MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS AND SUBSTANTIAL DEVELOPMENT GOALS. Pdf. Nursing courses.


GOALS 

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS. INTRODUCTION- In September 2000, representatives from 189 countries meet at the millennium summit in New York to adopt the united nations millennium declaration. The goals in the area of development and poverty eradication are now widely referred to as “Millennium Development Goals.”

DEFINITION- The millennium development goals, place health at the heart of development and represent commitments by governments throughout the world to do more to reduce poverty and hunger, and to tackle ill-health, gender inequality, lack of education, access to clean water, and environmental degradation. Thus three of the eight goals are directly health related and all of other goals have important indirect effects on health; three of the 8 goals; 8 of the 18 targets required to achieve these goals, and 18 of the 48 indicators of progress, are health related.

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INDICATORS:-
Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day. Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people. Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS INDICATORS:- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Achieve universal primary education.
Promote gender equality and empower women. Reduce child mortality. Improve maternal health. Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases. Ensure environmental sustainability. Global partnership for development.

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GLOBAL COMMITMENT TO THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS. .In September 2000,one hundred and eighty nine UN member countries- rich and poor alike- reaffirmed their commitment to peace and security, good governance, and attention to the most vulnerable with the adoption of the millennium declaration. . The over arching need is to ensure that the MDGs are integrated into and given top priority in each committed country’s development planning efforts: with efficient monitoring localization, and advocacy systems put in place, crucial financing secured; multisectoral support mobilized, and an enabling environment created with an MDG, responsive policy framework and legislation.

PHILIPPINE COMMITMENT TO THE MILLENNIUM GOALS. allowing go*Since the phillippines first resolved to adopt the MDGs, it has made encouraging studies, particularly towards the attainment of targets on reducing extreme poverty, child mortality, the incidence of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria; on improving gender equality in education; and improving households’ adequate dietary intake as well as access to safe drinking water. * Underpinning these gains are two facts. First, the MDGs have been tightly integrated into the medium term Philippine. Development plan(MTPD p)2004-2010, thus government strategies, policies and action plans to simultaneously address national and MDG targets. * Second the government has continually closely monitored its own rate of progress in MDG indicators, and used this information to fine- tune its planning and implementation, especially to ensure effective implementation at the local level. *Nevertheless, serious challenges and threats remain with regard to targets on maternal health, access to reproductive health services, nutrition, primary education, and environmental sustainability. And glaring disparities across regions persist, as do serve funding constraints.
The overall probability of attaining the targets remains high, through dependent largely on the confluence of several factors, among them: scaling up of current efforts on all target areas; more efficient synchronization and allocation of available limited resources, including mobilization of additional resources; and stronger advocacy for and enhanced capability to implement the MDGs at the local level.

CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS OF MDG INDICATORS. The concepts and definitions of MDGs are as follows(G,T and I written in parenthesis are pertaining to goal number, target no. and indicator no. of UN Declaration). 1)PREVALENCE OF UNDERWEIGHT CHILDREN) (UNDER FIVE YEARS OF AGE) (GT.T2.14)-> Proportion of children of under-five years with low weight-for-age, as measured by percentage of children in moderate and severe malnutrition those falling below 80% of the median weight for reference value or below 2 standard deviations of national or international reference populations, such as growth charts of the US national centre for health statistics.

PROPORTION(%) OF POPULATION BELOW MINIMUM LEVEL OF DIETARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION(GI.T2.15)-> since there is no specific data available, proxy indicator “proportion of population undernourished” is used. It is the proportion in percent age of persons whose food intake falls below the minimum requirement or food intake that is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. 3) UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY RATE( G4.T5.113)- Probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age, expressed per 1000 live births. 4) INFANT MORTALITY RATE(G4.T5.114)-> Probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age expressed per 1000 live births. 5) PROPORTION(%) OF 1 YEAR OLD CHILDREN IMMUNIZED FOR MEASLES (G4.T5.115)-> The percentage of infants reaching their first birthday fully immunized against measles(1 dose). MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO(G5.T6.116)-> Annual number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. A maternal death is the death of a women while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incident causes. PROPORTION(%) OF BIRTHS ATTENDED BY SKILLED HEALTH PERSONS(G5.T6.117)-> The proportion in percentage of births attended by skilled personnel per 100 live births, skilled health personnel refer exclusively to those health personnel(For Ex:- doctors, nurses, midwives) who have been trained to proficiency in the skills necessary to manage normal deliveries and diagnose or refer obstetric complications. Traditional birth attendants trained or untrained, are not included in this category. HIV PREVALENCE AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE(G6.T7.118)-> Since the relevant data is not available, the proxy indicator as proposed by UNSAIDS/WHO is used. The proxy indicator is “HIV prevalence among 15-24 years old by sex” which is the estimated number of young people(15-24years old)living with HIV/AIDS as per proportion of the same population and sex. The other proxy indicator is “HIV prevalence rate among population 15-49 years of age.” CONDOM USE IN HIGH-RISK POPULATION(G6.T7.119)-> Since the data is not available, it has been proposed to use “condom-use among 15-24 years old by sex.” This is the percentage of young men and women of age 15-24 years, who said that they used a condom the last time they had sex with a non-marital; non-cohabiting partner, of those who have had sex with such a partner in the last 12 months. RATIO OF CHILDREN ORPHANED/NON-ORPHANED IN SCHOOLS(G6.T7.120)-> Since the data is not available, the proxy indicator is used as “AIDS orphans currently living which is the estimated number of children(0-14) in a given year, having lost their mother or both parents to AIDS. MALARIA DEATH RATE PER 100,000 IN CHILDREN(0-4 YEARS OF AGE) (G6.T8.121)-> Proportion of children(0-4 years of age) died due to malaria in a given year. MALARIA DEATH RATE PER 100,000 IN ALL AGE GROUPS(G6.T8.121)->Proportion of people of all age groups died due to malaria in a given year. It is malaria crude death rate. MALARIA PREVALENCE RATE PER 100,000 POPULATION(G6.T8.121)-> Proportion of notified or reported cases of malaria per 100,000 population in a given year. It is malaria crude prevalence rate. PROPORTION(%) OF POPULATION UNDER- AGE 5 IN MALARIA RISK AREAS USING INSECTICIDE TREATED BED NETS( G6.T8.122)-> The percentage of children under- five years of age who are using insecticide- treated bed-nets among the same population living in malaria risk area, in a given year. PROPORTION(%) OF POPULATION UNDER- AGE 5 WITH FEVER BEING TREATED WITH ANTI-MALARIAL DRUGS(G6.T8.122)-> The percentage of children under-five years of age who are with fever being treated with anti-malarial drugs among the same population living in malaria risk area, in a given year. TUBERCULOSIS DEATH RATE PER 100,000(G6.T8.123)-> Proportion of people of all age groups died due to tuberculosis in a given year. TUBERCULOSIS PREVALENCE RATE PER 100,000(G6.T8.123)-> Proportion of tuberculosis cases of all age groups per 100,000 population in a given year. PROPORTION(%)OF SMEAR-POSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS CASES DETECTED AND PUT UNDER DIRECTLY OBSERVED TREATMENT SHORT-COURSE(DOTS)(G6.T8.124)-> Since the baseline data is not available WHO proposed to use “DOTS detection rate.”
PROPORTION(%) OF SMEAR-POSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS CASES DETECTED CURED UNDER DIRECTLY OBSERVED TREATMENT COURSE(DOTS)(G6.T8.124)-> Since the baseline data is not available WHO proposed to use DOTS cure rate which implies treatment success rate that is treatment completion rate and cure rate.

PROPORTION(%) OF POPULATION USING BIOMASS FUEL(GT.T9.129)-> Biomass fuel is any material, derived from plants or animals, deliberately burnt by human, For Ex:- wood, animal dung, crop residues and coal. Since the baseline data is not available the proxy indicator is proposed as “percentage of populations using solid fuels.” 


PROPORTION(%)OF POPULATION WITH SUSTAINABLE ACCESS TO AN IMPROVED WATER SOURCE, RURAL(G7.T10.130)- Since the baseline data is not available, the proxy indicator “percentage of population with access to improved drinking water sources, rural” is used. “Improved.” Water sources means household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, rain water collection. Access means the availability of at least 20 litres water per person per day from a source within one kilometer of the user’s dwelling.


PROPORTION(%)OF POPULATION WITH SUSTAINABLE ACCESS TO AN IMPROVED WATER SOURCE, URBAN(G7.T10.130)-> Since the baseline data is not available, the proxy indicator “percentage of population with access to improved drinking water sources, urban” is used. “Improved” water sources mean household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, rainwater collection. “Access” means the availability of at least 20 litres water per person per day from a source within one kilometer of the user’s dwelling.

PROPORTION(%) OF URBAN POPULATION WITH ACCESS TO IMPROVED SANITATION(G7.T11.131)-> “Improved” sanitation means: connection to a public sewer, connection to septic system, pour-flush latrine. The excreta disposal system is considered adequate if it is private or shared(but not public)and if hygienically, separates human excreta from human contact.

PROPORTION(%) OF POPULATION WITH ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE ESSENTIAL DRUGS ON A SUSTAINABLE BASIS(G8.T17.146)-> Since the baseline data is not available, the proxy indicator “percentage of population with access to essential drugs,” which WHO routinely reports for international comparison, is used.
Every year in order to estimate the level of access to essential drugs, WHO Global Action Program me on essential drugs interviews relevant experts in each country about the pharmaceutical situation.

The interviewees could choose from four level of access by the population to essential drugs: less than 50%; between 50-80%; 80-95% and above 95%.

They indicate which category is most appropriate for their country. Essential drugs are those drugs that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population. The indicators selected to monitor progress towards MDG, 5 target B are as follows:-

CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE-> Percentage of women aged 15-49 in union currently using contraception. ADOLESCENT BIRTH RATE-> Annual number of births to women aged 15-19 per 1000 women in that age group. Alternatively, it is referred to as the age – specific fertility rate for women aged 15-18.

ANTENATAL CARE COVERAGE-> Percentage of women aged 15-49 attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled health personnel(doctors, nurses or midwives) and the percentage attended by any provider at least four times.

UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING-> Refers to women who are fecund and sexually active but are not using any method of contraception and report not wanting any more children or wanting to delay the birth of the next child.

Next child


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS. INTRODUCTION- Sustainable development has been defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. For sustainable development to be achieved, it is crucial to harmonize three care elements: economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection.

GOALS. GOAL 1:- End poverty in all its form everywhere.

GOAL 2:- End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

GOAL 3:- Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.

GOAL 4:- Ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning. GOAL 5:- Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

GOAL 6:- Ensure access to water and sanitation for all.

GOAL 7:- Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

GOAL 8:- Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all.

GOAL 9:- Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.

GOAL 10:- Reduce inequality within and among countries.

GOAL 11:- Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

GOAL 12:- Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

GOAL 13:- Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.

GOAL 14:- Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources.

GOAL 15:- Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, half biodiversity loss.

GOAL 16:- Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies. GOAL 17:- Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

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